April 22, 2017

E3

Directions (1-15): Mark the out-of-context sentence for your answer.

Q1. A. Where government resolve and action can really make a difference is in the area of investment.

  1. The government’s mid-year review of the economy pares growth estimates for this fiscal down to less than 6%, from the upbeat 7.6% projected six months earlier.
  2. So far, the government has focused on inclusion, which is not a bad thing.
  3. The prediction may have dismayed markets, but this new show of realism should shake the government out of its cocoon of complacence.

(a) only A

(b) A and B

(c) only C

(d) only D

(e) None of the above

 

Q2. A. Young adult literature assures teens that the world is capable of understanding and sympathizing, and that it can provide a safe space to explore the unknown, including the unknown parts of oneself.

  1. But stories have always held the power to guide and influence their listeners and, moreover, teens often lack the tools or the cultural context to view works in a critical light.
  2. As evidenced by studies as well as our own memories, teen girls are particularly vulnerable to self-doubt and self-esteem problems.
  3. In this context, young adult novels can play a special role, with stories crafted specifically to validate their emotions and speak to young women’s concerns.

(a) only A

(b) only B

(c) only C

(d) only D

(e) None of the above

Q3. A. In 1991 labourers were brought in from the villages of Tamil Nadu to work on the runway and once construction was completed, instead of returning to their villages they decided to stick around in the city of dreams and thus the slum “Annawadi” came to be.

  1. Pulitzer Prize winning journalist, Katherine Boo spent three years in a Mumbai slum called “Annawadi” situated on the fringes of the city’s international airport.
  2. Why anyone would want to live in “a sodden, snake-filled bit of brushland across the street from the international terminal” is a baffling question to many, but because rural poverty is bleaker than urban destitution, many rural migrants choose the latter.
  3. Through the lives of several protagonists, the reader is able to get a glimpse into what life may be like in a Mumbai slum.

(a) only A

(b) A and B

(c) only C

(d) only D

(e) None of the above
Q4. A. According to a 2010 study, fields of insect-resistant GM corn have an “area-wide suppression effect” on insects, benefiting neighbouring fields containing conventional corn varieties.

  1. For example, modern techniques of genetic engineering-also known as biotechnology, recombinant DNA technology, or genetic modification (GM) – provide the tools to make old plants do spectacular new things.
  2. It is a specialty of self-styled public-interest groups, whose agenda is often not to protect public health or the environment, but rather to oppose the research, products, or technology that they happen to dislike.
  3. People everywhere are increasingly vulnerable to the use of what Nobel Prize-winning chemist Irving Langmuir dubbed “pathological science” – the “science of things that aren’t so” – to justify government regulation or other policies.

(a) only A

(b) only B

(c) only C

(d) only D

(e) None of the above

Q5. A. In general, it is fair to say that these activities are performed more efficiently as a result.

  1. Many activities that were previously performed “for free” such as home maintenance, and care for the sick and elderly, are now frequently outsourced and counted as economic output.
  2. People whose skills are worth, say, $50 per hour spend more of their time earning $50, rather than performing chores “worth” $10 or $20 per hour.
  3. But many individuals, most of the time, go online without any interest in buying something.

(a) only A

(b) A and B

(c) only C

(d) only D

(e) None of the above

Q6. A. Developed countries, however, devote most of their research funds to the diseases from which their citizens suffer, and that seems likely to continue for the foreseeable future.

  1. On which problems should we focus research in medicine and the biological sciences?
  2. People in rich countries already can expect to live about 30 years longer that people in the poorest countries.
  3. There is a strong argument for tackling the diseases that kill the most people – diseases like malaria, measles, and diarrhea, which kill malaria in developing countries, but very few in the developed world.

(a) only A

(b) A and B

(c) only C

(d) only D

(e) None of the above

Q7. A. Drugs with serious adverse safety profiles are used to treat potentially fatal conditions – including various forms of cancer, inflammatory arthritis, and HIV – because they ultimately help more than they hurt.

  1. Moreover, drug safety is a leading factor in determining how medicines are regulated.
  2. Rather than assess a medicine’s safety in isolation, its adverse effects must be considered in relation to its efficacy.
  3. In other words, a benefit-risk balance must be struck.

(a) only A

(b) only B

(c) only C

(d) only D

(e) None of the above

Q8. A. And one of the things that struck me as I learned more and more about HIV was how strange epidemics were.

  1. The word “Tipping Point,” for example, comes from the world of epidemiology.
  2. If you talk to the people who study epidemics – epidemiologists – you realize that they have a strikingly different way of looking at the world.
  3. Before I went to work for The New Yorker, I was a reporter for the Washington Post and I covered the AIDS epidemic.

(a) only A

(b) only B

(c) only C

(d) only D

(e) None of the above

Q9. A. I guess what I’m saying is that I’m not sure that this book fits into any one category.

  1. I profile three people who I think embody those types, and then I use the example of Paul Revere and his midnight ride to point out the subtle characteristics of this kind of social epidemic.
  2. I think that word of mouth is something created by three very rare and special psychological types, whom I call Connectors, Mavens, and Salesmen.
  3. There’s a whole section of the book devoted to explaining the phenomenon of word of mouth, for example.

(a) only A

(b) only B

(c) only C

(d) only D

(e) None of the above

Q10. A. Much of the African surface is covered by savannas, or open grasslands, and by arid plains and deserts.

  1. Africa is a continent of great size, almost 12 million square miles or about three times the size of the United States.
  2. We have already noted the origins of humankind in East Africa where some of the earliest fossil remains of protohominids have been found.
  3. Most of it lies in the tropics and, although we often think of Africa in terms of its rain forests, less than 10% of the continent is covered by tropical forests, and those are mostly in West Africa.

(a) only A

(b) A and B

(c) only C

(d) only D

(e) None of the above

Q11. A. In these centuries, there were important advances in the aesthetics of nature, including the emergence of the concepts of disinterestedness and the picturesque, as well as the introduction of the idea of positive aesthetics.

  1. Although environmental aesthetics has developed as a sub-field of philosophical aesthetics only in the last 40 years, it has historical roots in eighteenth and nineteenth-century aesthetics.
  2. Thus, by the end of the eighteenth century, there were three clearly distinct ideas each focusing on different aspects of nature’s diverse and often contrasting moods.
  3. These notions continue to play a role in contemporary work in environmental aesthetics, especially in the context of its relationship to environmentalism.

(a) only A

(b) A and B

(c) only C

(d) only D

(e) None of the above

Q12. A. But the loss is not only theirs.

  1. Unless disadvantaged racial groups are integrated into mainstream social institutions, they will continue to suffer from segregation and discrimination.
  2. Current affirmative action debates have lost sight of the ideal of integration as a compelling moral and political goal.
  3. It is high time that institutions of higher education forthrightly defend this ideal in its own right.

(a) only A

(b) A and B

(c) only C

(d) only D

(e) None of the above

Q13. A. Not long ago the world’s main worry was that people had too little to eat.

  1. In an age of plenty, individuals have the luxury of eating what they like.
  2. Persuading children to eat vegetables is hardly a new struggle, nor would it seem to rank high on the list of global priorities.
  3. Yet America, for all its libertarian ethos, is now worrying about how its citizens eat and how much exercise they take.

(a) only A

(b) only B

(c) only C

(d) only D

(e) None of the above

Q14. A. Moreover, for most nations, government debt is projected to grow relative to income for years to come.

  1. The popularity of austerity policies has waned over the past several years thanks to evidence that it may have been counterproductive.
  2. It is important to remember that there is an absence of evidence that government with their own currencies are too indebted.
  3. But many are still worried by the fact that, relative to national income, government debt is now larger in many countries than at any point since WWII.

(a) only A

(b) A and B

(c) only C

(d) only D

(e) None of the above

Q15. A. A thorough understanding of what civilization and culture are requires knowledge of all the qualities that make up human nature and a full understanding of world history.

  1. To be truly world history, an account of the past must not only retell what happened but must also relate events and people to each other.
  2. It must inquire into causes and effects.
  3. It must try to discern false hood in the old records, such as attempts of kings to make themselves look better than they really were.

(a) only A

(b) only B

(c) only C

(d) only D

(e) None of the above

Solutions

S1. Ans.(c)

Sol. Notice the theme followed in B, D, and A, in that order if you prefer. They all follow the idea paring of growth estimates, the dismay of the markets to this, and what government can do. D suggests that government should boost investment to accelerate growth. Sentence C talks about “inclusion which is not bad.” It is unrelated to the theme followed in the other three sentences.

S2. Ans.(b)

Sol. The paragraph highlights the importance of young adult literature for teens. CDA in that order follow this theme. However, statement B goes off on a tangent and states that teens lack “critical light.” It does not go along well with the other sentences.

S3. Ans.(d)

Sol. ‘lives of several protagonists,” “the reader” etc., in D are not related to the story narrated here that Katherine Boo spent three years in a slum that came into being when construction labourers continued to stay on rather than return to their villages.

S4. Ans.(a)

Sol. D, C and B in that order are about the same theme – which is, the unnecessary regulation of GM crops by governments and criticism by self-styled public-interest groups to research like modern techniques of genetic engineering. From this point of view sentence A is not related to the theme.

S5. Ans.(d)

Sol. B, A and C makes sense in that order. However, sentence D talks abruptly about going online without any interest in buying. It is disconnected from the other three sentences.

S6. Ans.(c)

Sol. “On which problems should we focus … There is a strong argument for tackling the diseases that kill the most people … Developed countries, however, devote most of their research funds…” elsewhere. Hence C does not fit into this scheme of things.

S7. Ans.(b)

Sol. A, C and D in that order make perfect sense on the theme that is concluded in sentence D. From this point of view, though B makes sense, it talks about regulation.

S8. Ans.(b)

Sol. D, A and C, in that order talks about the writer’s experience and learning. When B states “for example” it has no connection with the others. Example for what?

S9. Ans.(a)

Sol. D, C and B in that order is the writer commenting about a whole section of his book. That it does not fit into any category – sentence A – has hardly any relation to the other three sentences. In D the beginning of the paragraph is rather abrupt but there is no other sentence that can begin this paragraph.

S10. Ans.(c)

Sol. The other three sentences follow the theme of the geography of Africa – the origin of humankind cannot be linked to this theme. If you try to arrange the other sentences in a sequence it could be BDA.

S11. Ans.(c)

Sol. B, A and D in that order talks about the development of environmental aesthetics – its roots in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries – the emergence of the concepts of disinterestedness and the picturesque in these centuries and how these concepts still influence… C does not fit into this theme in any way – there is no place for “thus.”

S12. Ans.(d)

Sol. C, B and A is about the theme of integration with reference to affirmative action. “they will continue to suffer…” logically follows into “but the loss is not only theirs.” – There is no need to bring in institutions of higher education into all this. “this ideal” is also ambiguous. Even if we force “this ideal” to be “integration” there seems to no place for respect to the other sentences.

S13. Ans.(a)

Sol. Read the sentence in the order of C, B and A. The theme is the eating habits of Americans – children don’t eat vegetable – individuals eat what they like – their eating habit has become a national concern. Sentence A does not fit well in this scheme of things.

S14. Ans.(c)

Sol. B, D and A in that order talk about how in spite of the waning of the popularity of austerity measures government is now larger than ever and how it is projected to grow. C is a misfit and does not relate to any of the sentences.

S15. Ans.(a)

Sol. What is “truly world history” is explained in B, C and D in that order itself. It becomes impossible to relate A to this theme.