April 22, 2017

E1

Directions (1-15): Mark the out-of-context sentence for your answer.

Q1. A. It came as something of a surprise when scientists determined that human beings share almost 99 percent of their genetic material with chimpanzees.

  1. Prehuman bipeds predated stone tools, which appeared approximately 2.5 million year ago.
  2. Despite all the is held in common, however, the differences are crucial and allow humans to be allotted their won genus and species, Homo sapiens.
  3. This led one scientific journalist to refer to humans as “the third chimpanzee.”

(a) Only A

(b) Only B

(c) Only C

(d) Only D

(e) None of the above

 

Q2. A. This is the country where the leader of the ruling party, the speaker of the lower house of parliament, at least three chief ministers, and a number of sports and business icons are women.

  1. It is also a country where a generation of newly empowered young women are going out to work in large number than ever before.
  2. It’s early days yet, but one hopes these are the first stirrings of change.
  3. Trust Law, a news service run by Thomson Reuters, has ranked India as the worst G20 country in which to be a woman.

(a) Only A

(b) Only B

(c) Only C

(d) Only D

(e) None of the above

Q3. A. For no apparent reason you cannot help yourself from humming or singing a tune by Lady Gaga or Coldplay, or horror upon horrors, the latest American Idol reject.

  1. Songs that get stuck in your head and go round and round, sometimes for days, sometimes for months.
  2. Some people call them earworms.
  3. It there was nothing unique about them they would be swamped by all the other memories that sound similar too.

(a) Only A

(b) Only B

(c) Only C

(d) Only D

(e) None of the above

Q4. A. Nasa could design another rover, equipped with all sorts of life-hunting instrumentation, only to find it is taking the wrong measurements with the wrong detectors.

  1. The reason scientists favour a sample return mission is that they do not know exactly what they are looking for.
  2. Lunar rocks and soil were sealed in bags and only opened in airtight laboratories.
  3. Martian life, for example, could come in many different guises and using equipment designed to detect life on Earth, may not pick it up on Mars.

(a) Only A

(b) Only B

(c) Only C

(d) Only D

(e) None of the above

Q5. A. I am particularly optimistic about the potential for technological innovation to improve the lives of the poorest people in the world.

  1. Companies are then willing to make the investments required to build new systems, and customers are able to accept the transition costs of adopting new behaviours.
  2. But I believe that a realistic appraisal of the human condition compels an optimistic worldview.
  3. Usually, “optimism” and “realism” are used to describe two different outlooks on life.

(a) Only A

(b) Only B

(c) Only C

(d) Only D

(e) None of the above

Q6. A. New technologies of various kinds, together with globalization, are powerfully affecting the range of employment options for individuals in advanced and developing countries alike – and at various levels of education.

  1. From recent research, we have learned a number of interesting things about how the evolution of economic structure affects employment.
  2. How, then, should policymakers confront the new and difficult challenges for employment especially in developed economies?
  3. Technological innovations are not only reducing the number of routine jobs, but also causing changes in global supply chains and networks that result in the relocation of routine jobs – and, increasingly, non-routine jobs at multiple skill levels – in the tradable sector of many economies.

(a) Only A

(b) Only B

(c) Only C

(d) Only D

(e) None of the above

Q7. A. Beyond a certain point, this issue cannot be pursued independently of metaphysical issues about realism.

  1. What this means is that the judgment of taste is based on a feeling of pleasure or displeasure.
  2. The first necessary condition of judgment of taste is that it is essentially subjective.
  3. It is this that distinguishes a judgment of taste from an empirical judgment.

(a) Only A

(b) Only B

(c) Only C

(d) Only D

(e) None of the above

Q8. A. An essential ambiguity characterizes the experience of the audience.

  1. The metaphysical aspects of existentialist aesthetics imply a certain theory of the audience.
  2. The ambiguity of aesthetic experience is linked directly to the above mentioned theory of the negativity of the expressive means.
  3. The genuine artist creates a new virtual world that expresses a coherent, idiosyncratic perspective on the world shared by all.

(a) Only A

(b) Only B

(c) Only C

(d) Only D

(e) None of the above

Q9. A. The failure to distinguish these questions is the source of serious philosophical confusions.

  1. This may or may not turn out to be correct.
  2. A natural way of thinking would seem to be that mind-body dualism is a “survival-friendly” metaphysical view, whereas materialism is inimical to survival.
  3. The possibility of survival after death cannot be considered without taking into account the nature of the human person.

(a) Only A

(b) Only B

(c) Only C

(d) Only D

(e) None of the above

Q10. A. The pain you feel when you sprain your ankle is taken to cause you to open the freezer in search of an ice pack.

  1. Mind-world interaction is taken for granted in everyday experience and in scientific practice.
  2. Mental causation – the mind’s causal interaction with the world, and in particular, its influence on behaviour – is central to our conception of ourselves as agents.
  3. It might seem equally obvious that the mind’s causal role in producing behaviour is also a matter for science to settle.

(a) Only A

(b) Only B

(c) Only C

(d) Only D

(e) None of the above

Q11. A. The ability of such cells to morph into any other sort of cell suggested that worn-out or damaged tissues might be repaired, and diseases thus treated – a technique that has come to be known as regenerative medicine.

  1. Fourteen years ago James Thomson of the University of Wisconsin isolated stem cells from human embryos.
  2. However, experimental treatments fail far more often than they succeed.
  3. It was an exciting moment.

(a) Only A

(b) Only B

(c) Only C

(d) Only D

(e) None of the above

Q12. A. Among the many new gadgets unveiled at the recent Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas was a pair of smartphones able to exchange data using light.

  1. Using light offers the possibility of breaking out of this conundrum by exploiting a completely different part of the electromagnetic spectrum, one that is already ubiquitous because it is used for another purpose: illumination.
  2. These phones, as yet only prototypes from Casio, a Japanese firm, transmit digital signals by varying the intensity of the light given off from their screens.
  3. The flickering is so slight that it is imperceptible to the human eye, but the camera on another phone can detect it at a distance of up to ten metres.

(a) Only A

(b) Only B

(c) Only C

(d) Only D

(e) None of the above

Q13. A. At the recent Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas, talk of Ultra HD was on everyone’s lips.

  1. The recent floor of 3D films largely failed that test.
  2. The development most are hoping will do the trick is a display technology known as Ultra High-Definition that offers four times the resolution of today’s 1,080p HDTV sets.
  3. Having seen interest in 3D television fizzle, consumer-electronics firms are desperate to find some other blockbuster product that will get customers back into big-box stores.

(a) Only A

(b) Only B

(c) Only C

(d) Only D

(e) None of the above

Q14. A. The rapid shrinkage of Arctic ice cover is one of the most dramatic changes in nature currently occurring anywhere on the planet, with profound environmental and economic implications.

  1. There are several oil-related environmental risks specific to the Arctic Ocean.
  2. The once fabled northeast and northwest passages will reduce shipping times and costs by as much as half, bringing China and Japan much closer to Europe and North America’s east coast.
  3. We stand to lose one of the Earth’s largest and most significant ecosystems.

(a) Only A

(b) Only B

(c) Only C

(d) Only D

(e) None of the above

Q15. A. For better or worse, youth brands have lost the fear of alienating people who are not the core demographic.

  1. The ‘91and later generations have grown up with a far wider and more global set of influences.
  2. Or at least expect them to take a lot more ribbing without complaining.
  3. These ads are early signs of the clash between the pre and post liberalization generations.

(a) Only A

(b) Only B

(c) Only C

(d) Only D

(e) None of the above

Solutions

S1. Ans.(b)

Sol. A, D and C can be seen as describing what is common between chimpanzees and human species and yet how different they are. B has no connection with this theme.

S2. Ans.(c)

Sol. D, A and C makes up a complete story about the country being the worst for women in spite of the facts presented in A and C. Since there is no connection between this and the “stirrings of change” in C, it is the odd sentence.

S3. Ans.(d)

Sol. Arranging sentences B, C and A (better than CBA) in that order explains what are “earworms” – their uniqueness is beside the point even contrary to statement A. Hence D is the odd sentence.

S4. Ans.(c)

Sol. If you read the sentences in the order of B, D and A, you can understand the theme pursued which is why scientists prefer sample return missions. From this point of view C is a misfit and is disconnected.

S5. Ans.(b)

Sol. Notice the “I” in C and A. These two sentences can have a connection. Now compare B and D. D can be connected to A through “optimism” and to C through “realism” B has no connection with any of these.

S6. Ans.(b)

Sol. A, D and C in that order deal with the theme of how new technologies affect jobs and raises the question how policy makers this challenge. B is related to some other theme – ‘evolution of economic structure’ not necessarily new technologies or globalization.

S7. Ans.(a)

Sol. C, B and D in that order pursue the theme of judgment of taste vs. empirical judgment. “… this issue” in sentence A is not related to anything that is said in these three sentences and is the misfit.

S8. Ans.(c)

Sol. B is a good beginning for the theme – the theory of the audience, A and D then explain this theory – that an ambiguity characterizes the experience of the audience which is caught in the virtual world created by the artist. “the negativity of expressive means” has no place in this theme. Hence C is odd.

S9. Ans.(a)

Sol. “These questions” has no place anywhere among the other three sentences. D introduces the theme. C then states a “natural way of thinking”, which as stated in B “may or may not be correct.

S10. Ans.(d)

Sol. “it might seem equally obvious…” has nothing to do with the other sentences. C and then B followed by A talk about mental causation. “matter for science to settle” etc., is out of place.

S11. Ans.(c)

Sol. A followed by D and then by B make sense and talk about regenerative medicine – the technique and its discovery. From this point of view the failure of the “experimental treatments” (in itself ambiguous) has place in this theme.

S12. Ans.(b)

Sol. “breaking out of this conundrum” in statement B does not related to any of the other three sentences. The other three sentences in the other of A, C and D introduce a new discovery or technology to us.

S13. Ans.(b)

Sol. The other sentences are about ultra HD because the interest in 3D television sets has fizzled. 3D films “failing the test” is out of context.

S14. Ans.(b)

Sol. “oil related environmental risks” is not related to the other sentences which talk about the effects of rapid shrinkage of Arctic ice cover.

S15. Ans.(b)

Sol. The other three sentences are about youth brands. The theme is youth brands rather than what B talks about – wider and more global exposure of the liberalized generation. It is relevant to the theme but is not the theme. A, C and D follow the theme.